Sunday, June 16, 2019

Can You Guess the Airport From its Map?

These nine maps show the nine largest airports in the world by passenger numbers. The airports were chosen based on International Airport Reviews Top 20 Airports list.

Can you identify each airport based only on its map? As a very infrequent flyer I would find this challenge impossible myself. I've therefore included the IATA three letter codes for each airport as a clue (I still wouldn't be able to name eight of the airports). Answers are given at the bottom of this post.

While creating these maps I was reminded of the brilliant Trails of Wind interactive map of global airport runway orientations. More runways around the world are built on a north-south orientation than on a east-west axis. You can see this beautifully visualized on the Trails of Wind map. On this interactive map airport runways around the world are colored based on their orientation.

Answers (select text below to reveal)

London Heathrow (LHR), Shanghai Pudong (PVG), Los Angeles (LAX)

Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta (ATL), Beijing Capital (PEK), Dubai (DXB)

Tokyo Hanenda (HND), O'Hare Chicago (ORD), Hong Kong (HKA)

You might also like to play Name the City from its Road Network and Name the Country From its Rail Network

Saturday, June 15, 2019

Internal Migration in the USA

More people moved out of Los Angeles County than left any other county in the USA between 2015 and 2016. However more people also moved into Los Angeles County than moved into any other county in the country. Esri has mapped out the top twenty counties with the highest outbound and inbound migrations between 2015 and 2016. A lot of counties, like Los Angeles County, appear in the top twenty counties for both outbound and inbound migration. One reason for this is that many of the counties with the highest levels of migration are the most populated counties.

Esri has used data from the IRS to map internal migration in the USA. The Internal Revenue Service records when Americans move address every time they file taxes in a new state. Esri has used this data to map the movements between states and between counties between 2015-2016.

Using the IRS data Esri has created two maps for each state, showing inbound and outbound migration. These maps show which other states people are moving to when they leave a state and which states people are moving from into each U.S. state. Esri has also used the IRS data to show the twenty counties in the country with the biggest outbound migration (and which counties people moved to) and the twenty counties with the biggest inbound migration (and which counties they moved from).

You can view Esri's U.S. internal migration maps either on the Where are Americans Moving Story Map or on the Visualizing Population Migration blog post. Both feature the same maps which use Esri's Distributive Flow Lines tool to create the migration flow visualizations.

You can also view state-to-state migration flows in the United States, from 2009-2013, on the US Migration Flow Map. This map shows that Texas was the most popular destination for Californians moving out of the Golden State during these years. The love that Californians have for Texas was   reciprocated, as California was the most popular destination for Texans moving out of state.

This interactive map by Oregon State University allows you to see which states are the most popular destinations for Americans moving house. The US Migration Flow Map uses flow lines to visualize the numbers of people moving between different states in the USA from 2009-2013. The map includes options to see which states have the biggest exchanges of citizens and to view the most popular state destinations for each individual state.

You can see where people move to and from at the city level in the American Migration interactive map. American Migration visualizes where people moved to and from in America from 2011-2015.

If you hover over a city on the map you can see all the other cities where people moved to, according to the Census Bureau's 2011-2015 American Community Survey. The map uses the Metro to Metro Migration Flows from the survey, which asks respondents if they've moved in the last year where they lived one year ago. As well as the flow-lines on the map, which show all the cities people have moved to, a top 5 list shows the most popular destinations for people moving from the selected city.

Creating Flowmaps

If you are want to create your own flowmaps to visualize movement then you might be interested in Sarah Bellum's Canvas Flowmap Layer, a popular ArcGIS JavaScript API library, which allows you to map objects flowing from one location to another.

The Flowmap-Layer is also now available as a custom map layer for the Leaflet JavaScript mapping library. Like the original ArcGIS flowmap layer Leaflet.Canvas-Flowmap-Layer uses Bezier curves to visualize the movement of objects from one location to another on an interactive map.

The Migratory Patterns of Birds

Journey North is a citizen science platform which is monitoring and protecting migratory animal species. Tens of thousands of volunteers across the United States use the platform to report sightings of a number of different migratory animal and bird species. The project has been running for over 25 years and it has accumulated an important and invaluable database tracking the migratory patterns of a number of species. The platform is also used to record the dates when a number of plant species come into bloom.

Each of the animal, bird and plant species tracked on Journey North has its own interactive map. These maps allow you to view the citizen science reported sightings by date and by location. Each map also includes an animation option which allows you to view the sightings animated by month. This animation provides an overview of the migration patterns of each species. For example if you press 'play' on the Barn Swallow map you can observe how the reported sightings of the bird become more northerly from January to July as the swallows migrate north for the summer.

You can learn more about the migratory nature of a number of different American species of birds on National Geographic's Where Do They Go?. For this interactive feature National Geographic has created a series of beautiful maps to visualize the amazing migrations of different bird species in the Western Hemisphere.

Where Do They Go? starts with an impressive animated satellite map showing the fall migration of a Broad-Winged Hawk. This map animates the route of the birds' migration on top of a moving cloud cover satellite map showing some of the strong winds the birds encounter as they travel around the Gulf of Mexico.

As you scroll through Where Do They Go? a map of North, Central and South America is used to visualize the flight paths of different bird species, the major centers of human population and the seasonal changes in vegetation cover across the whole Western Hemisphere. These maps not only help to explain why the birds undertake these migrations but also beautifully visualize the huge distances that they travel.

Friday, June 14, 2019

The Most Popular French Names

In 2017 the most popular girl's name in France was Emma. The most popular name for boys was Gabriel. You can discover the most popular names in every region in France on a new interactive map from Le Monde.

Le Monde's What Are the Most Popular Names Since 1946 map allows you to see the most popular boy's and girl's name for every year since 1946 in every region of France. It provides an interesting insight into how the fashion in names has changed over time. In 1946 the most popular name for girls was Marie and the most popular name for boys was Jean.

The Zato Novo Baby Name Interactive Map can show you how popular your name is in every state of the USA. It can even show you how the popularity of your name has changed throughout the last 100 years.

Enter your name into the map and you can view an animated choropleth view showing the popularity of that name in each state for every year since the name's first occurrence in the US census. If you hover over a state you can view the number of people with the name for the currently displayed year and the percentage of people with that name in the state. Beneath the map is a total, showing the number of people with the name (for each year) across the whole of the country.

The American government's Social Security Administration has a tool that allows you to view the top 100 baby names for any state and for any year of birth (back to 1960). The SSA's Popular Names by State website also allows you to select any year to see the top 5 most popular male and female names given to babies in every state in the selected year.

Thursday, June 13, 2019

A Literal Map of the World

Planet Dirt is an interactive map of the world in which the names of countries have been translated to provide their literal meanings. If you've ever wondered what the name of a country actually means then you can use this map to find out.

Many countries around the world have wonderful literal meanings. For example Mali means 'Hippopotamus', Antigua and Barbuda means 'Ancient and Bearded' and Bhutan means 'Land of the Thunder Dragon'. My favorite has to be the wonderfully surreal meaning of Palau, which is 'Indirect Replies'.

The data for the map comes from this Wikipedia List of Country-Name Etymologies. So if you have any problems with the translated names on the map then I suggest you take it up with Wikipedia and not me! Although I do have to admit that the translation of Earth to 'Planet Dirt' is all mine. The map was created using Mapbox Studio. If you wish to create a similar map yourself then the Customize label text for a single label in the Mapbox Studio documentation is a good place to start.


Natural Features
Many countries around the world take their name from geographical or topographical features. These include Bahrain (Two Seas), Montserrat (Serrated Mountain), Chad (Lake), Croatia (Mountain People), Netherlands (Lowlands), Iceland (Land of Ice), Haiti (Mountainous Land) and Montenegro (Black Mountain).

We all like to believe that we are God's chosen people. For many countries this goes as far as believing you live in God's chosen country. Among the countries which have some kind of religious related name are Madagascar (Holy Land), Morocco (Land of God), Sri Lanka (Holy Island) Azerbaijan (Protected by Holy Fire), Djibouti (Land of the Moon God) and Uganda (Brothers & Sisters of God).

Around the world many countries are named after the people who live there (or who once lived there). In Europe we have England (Land of the Angles), France (Land of the Franks), Belgium (Land of the Belgae) and Switzerland (Land of the Swiss). In Africa we have Mauritania (Land of the Moors), Libya (Land of the Libu) and Senegal (Land of the Zenega). Elsewhere we have India (Land of Indus) and Russia (Land of the Rus).

Animals are also a common source for country names. Of these we have Spain (Island of Rabbits), Nepal (Those Who Domesticate Cattle), Somalia (Cattle Herders), Cameroon (Shrimp), Guadeloupe (Valley of the Wolf), Sierra Leone (Lion Mountain) and Mali (hippopotamus)

How the UK Turned to Green Energy

Last month the UK went 18 days, six hours and 10 minutes without using any of its coal power plants. This is the longest period of time that the country's electricity grid has operated without coal power since 1882. The new record is a result of an incredible transformation of energy supply in the UK. In just one decade the country has reduced its reliance on fossil fuels so that it now gets over half of its power from renewable sources.

Carbon Brief has mapped out how the UK has overhauled its energy sector in just ten years. In How the UK Transformed its Electricity Supply in a Decade Carbon Brief has published a story map which visualizes the year-by-year evolution of renewable energy. In 2008 the British government passed a Climate Change Act that requires the country to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 80% by 2050. Since 2008 the country has reduced its reliance on gas power by over 25% and almost completely eradicated its use of coal-fired power. According to Carbon Brief it now "gets more than half of its electricity from low-carbon sources".

As you progress through Climate Brief's story map you can see the percentage of power generated by different types of fuel for every year from 2008 to 2018 (keep an eye on the coal to see how it almost completely disappears). The map also shows the locations and sizes of the UK's power plants, colored by type. The text accompanying the map provides information on the government and civil action that has had an impact on the UK's power sources, helping to explain how the UK's impressive transformation has been achieved.

This week the UK government announced new legislation to cut UK carbon emissions to zero by 2050. Despite all the UK's efforts in moving towards renewable energy it still has a long way to go to reach a target of net-zero emissions by 2050.

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

A Random Stroll on Street View

If you've always wanted to be a flâneur but don't like the thought of leaving home then you might like the Street View Random Walker. This new application allows you to take a random walk around Japan using Google Maps Street View.

Once you open the Street View Random Walker you are dropped at a random location in Street View. You can then just sit back and watch as the application takes you on a random stroll around the streets of Japan using the Google Maps Street View API. The starting point for your random Street View stroll isn't entirely random. Every time I've used the Street View Random Walker my walk has started somewhere in Japan and most often somewhere in Tokyo.

After the application starts at a random location (within Japan) it will move forward down the street until it arrives at a road junction. When the Random Walker reaches a junction it takes a random turn from the available options. The application does this by getting the number of links available -
- and then choosing at random a direction between these links. The links are shown by the arrows on the Street View panorama. These arrows show the available directions which you can move in Street View. By calling the number of links available the application can determine how many directions it can move and it can then choose randomly between them.

If taking a random virtual walk on Google Maps Street View sounds like too much hard work then you could try Map Crunch instead. Press 'Go' on Map Crunch and you can view a random Street View image from Google's Street View coverage around the globe.

The Street View which you are shown could be from anywhere in the world where Google has captured Street View imagery. Map Crunch also allows you to select to view only random Street View images from your choice of continent or country. If the random element of Map Crunch doesn't appeal then you might prefer the Map Crunch Gallery, which shows only every selected View of the Day.

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

Mapping Export Related Jobs

In the light of Donald Trump's recent trade tariffs CNBC has taken a close look at where jobs are most dependent on exports. Other countries are likely to respond to Trump's trade war by applying retaliatory tariffs on goods and services made by American companies. This could have a big impact on the jobs and economies of locations across the United States, especially those that are most reliant on the export market.

CNBC's Where American Jobs are Most Dependent on Exports interactive map uses scaled markers to show the number of export-supported jobs in each county in the United States. The larger a county's marker then the more jobs are dependent on exports. The colors of the markers show the share of local GDP that is related to exports. If you hover over a marker on the map then you can view the exact number of local jobs and the percentage of GDP reliant on exports in that county.

The map points to some of the counties which are most reliant on the export market. These include LA County, New York County, Harris County in Houston and Cook County in Chicago.

Last month Axios released an interactive map to show how Trump's trade tariffs might effect workers in the USA. Axios' map, called Trump's Trade War, visualizes the concentration of tariff-affected industries in each county compared to the national average. The darker the color of a county on Axios' map then the higher the concentration of affected industries. The map actually uses two different colors to show the concentration of industries. Pink is used to show where more people voted for Trump in the 2016 presidential election. Green is used to show the counties which voted for Clinton.

Also See

How China’s proposed tariffs could affect U.S. workers and industries - this interactive map was released by the Brookings Institute to show the counties with the highest share of workers in industries affected by China's 2018 retaliatory tariffs on 128 American products.

Firing Back at Trump in the Trade War - the NYT (also after China's 2018 tariffs) placed a map showing where China's tariffs most affect American voters side-by-side with a map of where voters backed Trump in the Presidential election

Mapping the Battle of Normandy

Soldiers, sailors and airmen from Canada played a crucial role in the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944. Over 5,000 Canadian soldiers gave their lives during the Battle of Normandy and there were over 18,700 Canadian casualties during the campaign.

Project '44 is an interactive map which visualizes the Allied advance and the Canadian contribution to the D-Day landings and subsequent land campaign. The map provides an animated chronology of the positions of all the German and Allied units through June, July and August. On the map the German units are colored grey, the U.S. divisions are a khaki green, British units are brown and the Canadian units are shown in red.

From the map you can explore and learn more about each of the units of the First Canadian Army. If you a Canadian unit on the map you can actually read that unit's war diary for the 87 days of the Battle of Normandy. As you progress through the days of the campaign you can therefore not only observe the advance of the unit on the map but also read the unit's account of the action, including details about the soldiers who were wounded or killed during each day's fighting.

Over the coming weeks users will also also be able to add photos and stories to the maps.

Also See

D-Day military maps - a look at some of the original maps used during the D-Day campaign
D Day Journeys - a story map following the journeys of four Americans who took part in the D Day landings

The Hill's of Zurich

Zurich's Hills is a beautifully designed guided tour around some of the minor elevations surrounding the Zürichsee. The map was made by Raluca Nicola using the ArcGIS API for JavaScript and open-sourced contour line and map data.

I love everything about this map. In essence it is fairly simple. The map just uses contour lines, a digital elevation model and waterbody data (and only two colors) to create a 3D visualization of the hills around Zurich. The map sidebar provides a guided tour and further information about some of the featured hills. As you scroll through the tour the map interactions are indicated with small map symbols and by underlined text. Click on the underlined hill names and the map rotates, pans and zooms to focus on the selected location.

The 3D oblique views available on the map means that this map would actually be really useful on a  walk around Zurich. While admiring the views you could use the map to identify the names of the hills and peaks which surround you.