Wednesday, June 20, 2018

The Geography of the World Cup


The most expensive football team at this World Cup is France. The combined transfer market value of all the players in the French team is £972.45 million. Spain, who are many people's favorite to win the World Cup, have the second most expensive team, with a combined transfer market value of £930.60 million. Brasil have the third most expensive team.

You can discover the combined transfer market of every country's team on the FIFA 2018 National Squads interactive map. Teams in the 2018 World Cup are represented by red markers on the map. The country's with blue markers did not qualify for the 2018 Cup. Of these teams Italy stands out. The Italian team has a total transfer market value £598 million, making it the 8th most expensive team in the world. However all those expensive players were unable to help Italy qualify for this year's competition.

Where all those expensive players play their football is another matter. The English Premier League has the most players playing in the 2018 World Cup. 123 players in this World Cup play in the EPL. 81 players in the World Cup play in Spain. 67 play in Germany and 58 play in Italy.

You can find out more about where this year's World Cup players ply their trade on WC Rosters, a tableau visualization of where World Cup players play their club football. Only the England football team in this year's World Cup have all their players playing in their domestic league. Russia comes second in this regard with 21 of the 23 Russian squad playing in the Russian league (Russian league teams must play five Russians, this means Russian players demand high wages in the Russian league and have little financial incentive for playing abroad).

Manchester City in the English Premier League are the club with the most players in the 2018 World Cup. 16 players in this year's competition are owned by Manchester City. Real Madrid have 15 players and Barcelona have 14 players in the World Cup.

Tuesday, June 19, 2018

The American Income Gap


The Income Extremes for Wealth Divide interactive map shows the richest and poorest households in each census tract area in the United States. The map visualizes two dot map layers showing the number of households earning over $200,000 and the number of households earning under $25,000. The result is a map which clearly shows the income divide in American towns and cities.

If you select a census tract on the map an information window opens displaying the tract's population and number of households. It also informs you about the number of households in the census tract which have an income greater than $200,000 and the number of households which have an income less than $25,000. The yellow and blue dots don't show the exact addresses of households but are randomized within each census tract area.

Esri's Predominant Income Range by Households is a similar map, however this map shows the most dominant income range in each census tract in the United States. The map uses income data from the 5-year American Community Survey in 2016 to show the income range of the most people in each tract. Using the map you can explore the reality of income inequality in every local neighborhood.

While exploring the map you might spot patterns which recur in states, cities and communities across the country. For example you should be able to spot the income divide between many metro and rural areas. In college towns you might see low income student-dominated neighborhoods surrounded by wealthier neighborhoods.

The map reveals that a number of cities, such as Philadelphia, Seattle and Houston have a thriving downtown core. While cities such as Detroit and Cleveland have urban centers which are struggling economically.

Apple Maps in LeafletJS


Apple launched its desktop mapping API, Mapkit.js, two weeks ago. You can view documentation, demo maps and sample code of Mapkit on Apple's developer page. What Mapkit's developer page doesn't tell you is how to add third party map layers to a Mapkit powered map. It also doesn't tell you how you can use Mapkit's own basemap layers with other popular mapping libraries.

Mapkit's developer page is a little basic at the moment. I've found geo.ebp.ch useful when trying to build a map with Mapkit. Their blog post A New Map in Town includes a demo map using Mapkit's driving directions service. This demo map also shows you how to add another map tile layer to a Mapkit powered map. The map loads a WMTS layer from ArcGIS Online. The demo map uses Codepen so it is easy to see how you can use the example to load any other WMTS layer into a Mapkit powered map.

You can of course also use Mapkit's basemaps in other mapping libraries. For example you could use Apple's map layers in a Leaflet powered map. You can use map tiles from Apple Maps in LeafletJS by using the MapkitMutant plugin for LeafletJS. MapkitMutant is a LeafletJS plugin which allows you to use Apple Map's basemaps. Mapkit's basemaps are a road-map, a satellite (aerial) map and satellite with labels.

Although LeafletJS is an open-source JavaScript library which is free to use Apple's Mapkit is neither of these things. This means that if you want to use Mapkit's basemaps within a Leaflet powered map you will still need an Apple authorization token and will still need to be aware of Apple's charges. A note at the very bottom of the Mapkit developer page says that "MapKit JS beta provides a free daily limit of 250,000 map initializations and 25,000 service calls."

Monday, June 18, 2018

Death from Alcoholism


Mike Bostock has written up a great introduction into the different methods that you can use to compare the difference between two different values in a mapped data visualization. To illustrate the methods of comparison he has used Deaths from Alcohol Use Disorders in 1980 and 2014. To illustrate the difference in the number of deaths from alcohol between these two dates he has created a series of interactive maps, each of which uses a different method to visualize the same data.

Methods of Comparison, Compared is published on Observable, Mike's platform for exploratory data analysis. Observable is not only a platform for data analysis, visualization, and exploration. It is also a platform for teaching and sharing techniques in coding and creating better data visualization. 'Methods of Comparison, Compared' is a great example of this, as it not only includes a number of interactive choropleth maps but also explores and explains the methodology used in their creation.

In comparing the change in the number alcohol related deaths in each U.S. county between 1980 and 2014 it is possible to use a number of different methods. 'Methods of Comparison, Compared' shows three different choropleth maps, each of which uses a different method. These are a map showing the simple difference in the number of deaths between the two dates, a second map which shows the relative change and a third map which shows the ratio.

Each method results in a different mapped visualization of the same data. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Antipodean Weather


Around 70% of the Earth's surface is covered by water. This means that there aren't that many populated locations in the world that have populated antipodes. Christchurch in New Zealand is one. If you tunneled straight through the Earth from Christchurch you would eventually emerge in A Coruña, Spain. If you started in Hong Kong you could conceivably burrow your way to La Quiaca in Argentina.

Wikipedia has a useful list of cities with exact (or almost exact) antipodes. It also lists cities which are within 100 km of having another city as an antipodes. If you want to know where you would end up if you tunneled through the Earth from your location then you could use the Antipodes Map. The Antipodes Map shows you where you would end up if you tunneled straight through the Earth.

However no one wants to tunnel through the Earth without knowing what the weather is like at your antipodes. Imagine how stupid you would feel if you spent all day tunneling through the Earth only to find out it is raining at your antipodes when you arrive. That is why you need Antiweather.

Enter your location into Antiweather and not only can you find out what the weather is like where you live but also how the weather is right now on the exact other side of the Earth.

4,000 Irish Shipwrecks


The Wreck Viewer is a new interactive map which shows the locations of 4,000 shipwrecks around the shores of Ireland, dating back as far as the 16th century. The map was created by Ireland's National Monuments Service (NMS) to help provide access to and visualize the NMS’s Wreck Inventory.

Each red dot on the map represents a wreck for which there is a known location. 78% of the wrecks in the Wreck Inventory have no known precise location. If you select a wreck on the map you can read the wreck description. This includes details on the ship name, type of vessel and the date the vessel sank. The details also contain (where available) the wreck summary description which provides details on the vessel's history, voyage, cargo, passengers and the story of its loss. At present only 20% of ships in the database have a summary description.

Saturday, June 16, 2018

Who Moves Where in Europe?


In Europe citizens of countries in the EU and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) are free to live, study, work and retire in any other EU or EFTA zone country. Swissinfo has been looking at the effect of free movement on the net migration rate in each of the countries in the EU & EFTA.

Which European countries attract the most immigrants? shows the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants in each country based on movement within the free movement area. Areas with a positive net migration rate (where more people are moving to) are colored blue on the map and areas & regions with a net migration rate (where people are leaving) are colored brown on the map.

As you might expect migrants within Europe tend to move to regions that have the strongest economies. Conversely the areas and regions where the most people move from tend to be areas with weaker economies.

This map is featured in Swissinfo's 'migration' series. This in-depth series explores the issues of migration around the world (particularly in how it effects Switzerland) and includes a number of maps and other data visualizations of global and European migration data.

Friday, June 15, 2018

Friday's Portrait of Earth


Japan's Himawari-8 satellite is in stationary orbit over New Guinea where it captures some truly amazing imagery of the Earth. Every day the satellite captures imagery of the western Pacific, Australia, and parts of Asia, Antarctica & Alaska.

Digital Typhoon's Weather Satellite Himawari Viewer is an easy way to explore the latest satellite images from Himawari and explore historical Earth images captured by the satellite. The viewer takes the latest satellite images of Earth captured by Himawari and displays them as an interactive Leaflet map. This allows you to zoom-in and pan around satellite images of the Earth which were actually captured earlier today.

You can also view time-lapse animations of the latest Himawari-8 satellite imagery, on Himawari-8 Real-time Web. Himawari-8 Real-time Web defaults to create and show animations of Himawari's latest satellite views of Earth. You can also use the calendar to view historical imagery and animations for any other date.

Thursday, June 14, 2018

The Atlanta Rap Map


According to the Syncopated Geography of Hip-Hop "the sounds of rap music in Atlanta have grown out of the blending of hard-core sounds from the West (Gangsta Rap and G-Funk), bass beats from Florida, and styles and images from the North". The sounds of rap music in Atlanta were also hugely inspired by the city of Atlanta itself.

The introduction to the Atlanta Rap Map says that the map explores "the symbiotic relationship between art and space". In essence, however, this is an interactive map showing Atlanta locations mentioned in the lyrics of Childish Gambino, Ludacris and OutKast.

The map provides a great resource for exploring the places that are important to each of the featured three rap acts. If you click on the categorized markers on this map you can read the lyrics that mention the location and the name of the Childish Gambino, Ludacris and OutKast song that mentions the place. The map really does show "the symbiotic relationship between art and space". In fact I think I can even tell where the three rap acts grew up in Atlanta purely from the clusters of the three different colored markers on the map.


The Pudding analyzed the lyrics of about 50,000 songs in order to discover the most common words used in Hip Hop. From this analysis they were then able to make an interactive map which groups Hip Hop artists by lyrical similarity.

The Words That are Most Hip Hop interactive map organizes the faces of Hip Hop artists based on the overlap between the words they use in their lyrics. You can hover over the faces on the map to reveal the name of each artist. The map reveals distinct etymological families in Hip Hop. For example there is the Wu-Tang branch of the language of Hip Hop whose members share a very similar lexicon.

The different dialects of Hip Hop that emerge on the map may owe a lot to the physical geography of the Hip Hop artists. Further study is needed to see if the lyrical similarity between artists correlates to geographical closeness. The Atlanta rap artists Childish Gambino and Ludacris are quite close to each other on the map and OutKast aren't too far away.


To prove a link between Hip Hop dialects and geography you might want to explore the Geography of Hip-Hop interactive map. The Geography of Hip-Hop documents the history and geography of Hip Hop. The map (and accompanying essay) explore how Hip Hop has spread around the world and how different cites have developed their own distinct sounds and styles of Hip Hop.

The interactive Hip Hop map allows you to browse and listen to Hip Hop music by location. The map features 955 songs, most of which you can listen to directly from the map. The size of the markers on the map reflects the number of artists featured from that location. In this way you can get a rough idea about the size of the Hip Hop communities in these different urban locations.

By listening to the songs listed in one city you may begin to get a feel for the sound and style of Hip Hop from that location. You can learn more about the development of Hip Hop in the accompanying essay, The Syncopated Geography of Hip-Hop. The essay explores the influence of geography on Hip Hop communities & styles and how Hip Hop music reflects the influence of the different urban locales where it is made.

The 2018 World Cup Stadium Tour


12 stadiums in 11 Russian cities will host the 64 matches of the 2018 World Cup. Two of the stadium are in Moscow. The 81,000-capacity Luzhniki Stadium will host the final. The Luzhniki Stadium will also host today's opening match between Russia and Saudi Arabia. The other World Cup stadium in Moscow is the 45,000 Spartak Stadium.

You can explore the two Moscow stadium and the ten stadium hosted in other Russian cities on AP News' World Cup Venue Tour. The tour uses Esri maps to show you a satellite image of each of the 12 World Cup stadium. Each satellite image is accompanied by a short description of the stadium, including information on the stadium's capacity.

The BBC's Guide to the Grounds includes more detailed information on each of the stadium. These details include information on each of the group and knockout matches that each of the stadium will host.

The Kalingrad Stadium is one of the most interesting of the 12 stadium from a geographical point of view. The stadium is located in the Kaliningrad oblast. Kalingrad is a Russian exclave situated on the Baltic Sea. The country is bordered by Poland to the south and Lithuania to the east and north. That means that to travel to the Kalingrad Stadium from any of the other stadiums you would have to leave Russia and travel through or fly over or around at least one other country.


From a cartographical point of view the most interesting team in this year's World Cup is Switzerland. That is because the Switzerland team are the only team in this year's World Cup who will be wearing topographical maps on their team shirts.