Thursday, May 30, 2019

Where Europeans Move in Europe

In the 2019 European Elections far-right nationalist political parties won the largest share of the votes in the UK, Italy and France. These extreme right-wing parties all share a dislike for the European Union and immigration. They all wish to stop the freedom of movement for workers in Europe. Which raises the question of whether internal immigration in Europe is a huge problem in these countries.

How Europe Moves is an interactive map visualizing the number of European citizens of working age living in another European country (2017). The map uses scaled circles and flow lines to show the number of internal (to Europe) immigrants and emigrants in every European country. Of the three countries voting for extreme right-wing parties only the UK has a significant net gain in workers moving between European countries (2,730,000 workers in and 454,000 workers out). France has a slight net gain (875,000 in, 572,000 out). Italy actually has a net loss 1,160,000 in and 1,300,000 out).

Germany and the UK are the countries with the largest numbers of European internal migrants. However in terms of the percentage of the working age population Luxembourg (45%), Switzerland (19%), Ireland (12%) and Cyprus (11%) have the most internal European migrants. Eastern European countries and Portugal are among the countries with the biggest percentage of the working age population emigrating to other European countries.

The flow lines on the How Europe Moves map reflect the numbers of people moving between different countries. If you click on a country the map will switch to just show the migration flow for that country. This makes it easier to determine where migrants are coming from and going between individual countries. For example, the UK is the most popular destination for Polish emigrants. Italy is the most popular destination for Romanians. France is the most popular destination for the Portuguese. Germany is the most popular destination for Italians.

In Europe citizens within both the EU and the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) are free to live, study, work and retire in any other EU or EFTA country. Swissinfo has undertaken a more detailed look at internal migration in Europe and created a map which shows which individual regions of Europe have a net gain or loss of workers.

Which European countries attract the most immigrants? shows the difference between the number of immigrants and emigrants in each region based on movement within the free movement area. Areas with a positive net migration rate (where more people are moving to) are colored blue on the map and areas & regions with a negative net migration rate (where people are leaving) are colored brown on the map.

As you might expect migrants within Europe tend to move to regions that have the strongest economies. Conversely the areas and regions where the most people move from tend to be areas with weaker economies. This map is featured in Swissinfo's 'migration' series. This in-depth series explores the issues of migration around the world (particularly in how it effects Switzerland) and includes a number of maps and other data visualizations of global and European migration data.

If you want a list showing the number of immigrants and emigrants in individual European countries and where they came from and where they went then you can check out the Pew Research Center's the Origins and Destinations of European Union Migrants within the EU.

This interactive map allows you to select individual European countries and view choropleth maps showing internal and external migration between the selected country and other European countries. It also lists the numbers moving to and from the chosen country and the other countries of Europe.

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